CO2 Capture Technology in India is an example in recent years of how a major breakthrough can lead to a far lower cost of capturing planet-heating CO2 emissions and turning them into useful commercially marketable products.
One of the biggest contributors of carbon dioxide in India is the coal consumption. India contributed 7 percent to the global carbon dioxide, while United States, for 14 percent – largest emitter.
What is Carbon Capture Technology?
Carbon capture technology (CCS) or known also as CO2 capture technology is an approach to capturing carbon dioxide, transporting it to a storage location and isolating it, and could help with global warming.
Capturing carbon from emissions or the atmosphere typically uses things called sorbents, which are typically ceramic filters which allow smaller O2 and NOx molecules through, but capture larger CO2 molecules.
This process involves powering fans to push the gases through the sorbents, then a mechanical process of moving the sorbents to the release mechanism, then more energy to cause the sorbents to release the CO2.
What CO2 Capture Technology Are Available in India?
The commercial availability of CCS in India depends largely on the successful implementation of the technology in industrialized countries.
The most crucial requirement of a long-term CCS strategy for coal-based power in India is a reliable CO2 storage capacity assessment for the country. At the moment, CCS technologies are not economically feasible.
Industries, especially steel and cement, have been proactively pursuing CCS as part of their emissions reduction ambitions. In September 2020, an ‘Industry Charter’ for near zero emissions by 2050 was agreed to by six Indian companies that will explore different decarbonization measures including carbon sequestration.
In recent years had been some breakthrough in lowing the cost of carbon capture. For example, a coal-fired power plant in Chennai, India – chemicals manufacturer Tuticorin Alkali Chemicals & Fertilizers (TACFL) will use CO2 capture technology to produce soda ash.
Also, the price of capturing CO2 is far lower at $30 per metric ton compared to the $60 to $90 per ton typical in the global power sector.
This process was implemented by the London-based company Carbon Clean Solutions Limited (CCSL). There are other companies that are successfully converting CO2 emissions into commercially marketable products.
The company Blue Planet, based in California, produces concrete and other building materials from sequestered CO2, while the company Skyonic can convert carbon emissions into baking soda, bleach and hydrochloric acid.
According to researchers, India has a carbon storage potential to up to 400 billion tons of carbon dioxide. Best places for this a usually located mainly in oil and gas fields, coal fields and saline aquifers.