Toxic pollution

Toxic pollution
Toxic pollution

The 5 Critical Stages of the Search and Rescue Ecosystem

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.[1] Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.

Forms of pollution

The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular contaminant relevant to each of them:

Human health

Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. An estimated 500 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet,[40][41] Over ten million people in India fell ill with waterborne illnesses in 2013, and 1,535 people died, most of them children.[42] Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water.[43] A 2010 analysis estimated that 1.2 million people died prematurely each year in China because of air pollution.[44] The WHO estimated in 2007 that air pollution causes half a million deaths per year in India.[45] Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the United States could be over 50,000.[46]

Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are at additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects.

Environment

Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a number of effects of this:

Environmental health information

The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP)[47] at the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintains a comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes access to resources produced by TEHIP and by other government agencies and organizations. This web site includes links to databases, bibliographies, tutorials, and other scientific and consumer-oriented resources. TEHIP also is responsible for the Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET)[48] an integrated system of toxicology and environmental health databases that are available free of charge on the web.

TOXMAP is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that is part of TOXNET. TOXMAP uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency‘s (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs.

Worker productivity

A number of studies show that pollution has an adverse effect on the productivity of both indoor and outdoor workers.

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